The Roman emperor Trajan and his wife Plotina are depicted on Menshikov's left shoulder. The figures are copied from Roman coins. Trajan expanded the Roman Empire eastward, beginning Rome's Golden Age. Menshikov's association with the tsar Peter the Great, who increased Russia's territory, can be paralleled with Trajan's accomplishments.

The leafy acanthus bundles in the form of sheaves allude to the royal coat of arms of the Swedish Vasa family. Their inclusion refers to Menshikov's expulsion of the Swedish army from St. Petersburg.

On Menshikov's right shoulder is an image of Alexander the Great, copied from a Greek coin. The pictorial program reflects Menshikov's desire to be associated with his historical namesake.

The two scenes on the front of the armor depict virtues of magnanimous rulers. On the left is an illustration of the story of Alexander the Great and Hephaestion, mirroring Menshikov's friendship with Peter the Great, and on the right is the story of the Justice of Trajan.